A center of population, commerce, and culture. Often large and impressive, cities are the bones of any civilization.
Few and far between, a city-state is a self-governing political entity that consists solely or chiefly of a single metropolitan area. City-states are not precluded from possessing colonies or dependencies but are defined instead by the fact that the chief city or capital also functions as the primary government of the entire state, with no distinction between local government or the one that rules the entirety of the state.
A city by the seaside. Port cities are centers of commerce and provide a huge economic boost to their parent countries.
Small population centers that have the right to host markets, distinguishing them from hamlets and cities.
Like a port city, but much smaller in scale.
Small population centers with no observable rights or specialties. Fairly common in the countryside. Once a hamlet is given the right to host markets, it becomes a market town. A settlement by the seaside cannot be a hamlet, even if it has no port.
A colony is a settlement established by individuals who have left their native country for new lands. These settlements are subject to, or connected with, a parent nation. Colonies vary greatly, they can be heavily populated or not at all.
Self-explanatory. Usually a destroyed fort or settlement.
A large area of water surrounded by land.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).